Qualitative research “…centers on understanding the subjective meanings that individuals, groups, and cultures give to their social worlds. The social reality is multiple and not unitary; there is no single truth that is sought.” – Hesse-Biber & Leavy (2011)
Tesch (1990) identified 28 possible qualitative approaches. Five of the most widely used approaches are the narrative method, the phenomenological method, the grounded theory method, the ethnographic method, and the case study method. It is important to select the approach that best fits the needs of one’s research.
To learn more about qualitative research, please feel free to explore the many resources available on this website.
If you are interested in finding a collaborator with expertise in qualitative research, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
See below for information about:
- Software Programs Used in Qualitative Research
- Qualitative Groups & Professional Organizations
- Journal Articles
- Books & Book Chapters
- Additional Resources
- Slides from 5/23/19 Qualitative Research Methods Workshop
Software Programs Used in Qualitative Research
A number of qualitative data analysis software programs are available to help organize and manage one’s data. Fortunately, UConn has a license for NVivo, which allows faculty, staff, and students to use it free of charge. See the Zamawe (2015) article below (under “Journal Articles”) for a scholarly perspective on NVivo use.
There are a variety of transcription services available, including automatic and human-based services. A PCMAG.COM article comparing audio and video transcription services is available here.
Qualitative Groups & Professional Organizations
- Mixed Methods International Research Association (MMIRA)
- Many professional organizations have a division or group focused on qualitative research. For example, the American Psychological Association offers Division 5: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods, which includes a section specifically for those interested in qualitative methods.
- Yale University’s Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS (CIRA) sponsors the Qualitative Research Discussion Group (QRDG), which meets the third Friday of each month. The goal of the discussion group is to provide opportunities for individuals involved in qualitative or mixed-methods research to meet regularly to discuss relevant publications and the qualitative research process and potentially problem-solve issues that may arise when engaged in qualitative research. Discussion topics include, but are not limited to, logistics, data management, analysis, dissemination, role of the researcher, and ethics. Meetings can be joined in person, via phone, or by computer. The meetings are coordinated by Lauretta Grau, PhD, who is a Research Scientist at the Yale School of Public Health and a member of the CIRA Interdisciplinary Research Methods Core. Please contact Dr. Grau to be added to the QRDG e-mail list.
- Bailey, L. F. (2014). The origin and success of qualitative research. International Journal of Market Research, 56(2), 167-184. doi:10.2501/ijmr-2014-013
- Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
- Chea, M., & Mobley, A. R. (2019). Interpretation and understanding of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans consumer messages among low-income adults. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1-9. doi:10.1080/07315724.2019.1610918
- Cornman, D. H., Christie, S., Shepherd, L. M., Macdonald, S., Amico, K. R., Smith, L. R., . . . Fisher, J. D. (2011). Counsellor-delivered HIV risk reduction intervention addresses safer sex barriers of people living with HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Psychology & Health, 26(12), 1623-1641. doi:10.1080/08870446.2011.552180
- Donorfio, L. K., Dambrosio, L. A., Coughlin, J. F., & Mohyde, M. (2009). To drive or not to drive, that isnt the question—the meaning of self-regulation among older drivers. Journal of Safety Research, 40(3), 221-226. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2009.04.002
- Dulin Keita, A., Whittaker, S., Wynter, J., Kidanu, T. W., Chhay, C., Cardel, M., & Gans, K. M. (2016). Applying concept mapping methodology to identify the perceptions of risk and protective factors for childhood obesity among Southeast Asian refugees. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 27(4), 1909-1933. doi:10.1353/hpu.2016.0171
- Ewart, C. K. (1991). Social action theory for a public health psychology. American Psychologist, 46(9), 931-946. doi:10.1037//0003-066x.46.9.931
- Gans, K. M., Lovell, H., Fortunet, R., McMahon, C., Carton-Lopez, S., & Lasater, T. M. (1999). Implications of qualitative research for nutrition education geared to selected Hispanic audiences. Journal of Nutrition Education, 31(6), 331-338. doi:10.1016/s0022-3182(99)70486-3
- Gans, K. M., Kumanyika, S. K., Lovell, H., Risica, P. M., Goldman, R., Odoms-Young, A., . . . Lasater, T. M. (2003). The development of SisterTalk: A cable TV-delivered weight control program for black women. Preventive Medicine, 37(6), 654-667. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.09.014
- Grau, L. E., Griffiths-Kundishora, A., Heimer, R., Hutcheson, M., Nunn, A., Towey, C., & Stopka, T. J. (2017). Barriers and facilitators of the HIV care continuum in Southern New England for people with drug or alcohol use and living with HIV/AIDS: Perspectives of HIV surveillance experts and service providers. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 12(1). doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0088-7
- Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? Field Methods, 18(1), 59-82. doi:10.1177/1525822×05279903
- Guest, G., Namey, E., & Mckenna, K. (2016). How many focus groups are enough? Building an evidence base for nonprobability sample sizes. Field Methods, 29(1), 3-22. doi:10.1177/1525822×16639015
- Hall, K. L., Stokols, D., Stipe Iman, B. A., Vogel, A. L., Feng, A., Masimore, B., . . . Berrigan, D. (2012). Assessing the value of team science: A study comparing center- and investigator-initiated grants. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(2). doi:10.1016/s0749-3797(11)00928-7
- Markle, D. T., West, R. E., & Rich, P. J. (2011). Beyond transcription: Technology, change, and refinement of method. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 12(3).
- Neale, J., Miller, P., & West, R. (2014). Reporting quantitative information in qualitative research: Guidance for authors and reviewers. Addiction, 109(2), 175-176. doi:10.1111/add.12408
- Resnicow, K., Baranowski, T., Ahluwalia, J. S., & Braithwaite, R. L. (1999). Cultural sensitivity in public health: Defined and demystified. Ethnicity & Disease, 9. 10-21.
- Sandelowski, M. (1993). Rigor or rigor mortis: The Problem of rigor in qualitative research revisited. Advances in Nursing Science, 16(2), 1-8. doi:10.1097/00012272-199312000-00002
- Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J. (2003). Classifying the findings in qualitative studies. Qualitative Health Research, 13(7), 905-923. doi:10.1177/1049732303253488
- Strolla, L. O., Gans, K. M., & Risica, P. M. (2006). Using qualitative and quantitative formative research to develop tailored nutrition intervention materials for a diverse low-income audience. Health Education Research, 21(4), 465-476. doi:10.1093/her/cyh072
- Tong, A., Sainsbury, P., & Craig, J. (2007). Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): A 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 19(6), 349-357. doi:10.1093/intqhc/mzm042
- Tovar, A., Mena, N. Z., Risica, P., Gorham, G., & Gans, K. M. (2015). Nutrition and physical activity environments of home-based child care: What Hispanic providers have to say. Childhood Obesity, 11(5), 521-529. doi:10.1089/chi.2015.0040
- Zamawe, F. C. (2015). The implication of using NVivo software in qualitative data analysis: Evidence-based reflections. Malawi Medical Journal, 27(1), 13-15. doi:10.4314/mmj.v27i1.4
Books & Book Chapters
- Burgess, R. G. (Ed.). (1991). Field research: A sourcebook and field manual. London: George Allen and Unwin.
- Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (not available on the publisher’s website, but can be found by searching online; also available in a 4th edition)
- Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2018). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (3rd ed.). Thorofare, NJ: Sage Publications.
- Fontana, A., & Frey, J. H. (2000). The interview – From structured questions to negotiated text. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., pp. 61-106). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Friese, S. (2012). Qualitative data analysis with ATLAS.ti. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. (not available on the publisher’s website, but can be found by searching online; also available in a 3rd edition)
- Green, J., & Thorogood, N. (2004). Qualitative methods for health research. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. (not available on the publisher’s website, but can be found by searching online)
- Maxwell, J. (2013). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- National Research Council. (2015). Enhancing the effectiveness of team science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/19007 (free downloadable e-book)
- Schensul J., & LeCompte M. (1999). The ethnographer’s toolkit. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press. (not available on the publisher’s website, but can be found by searching online; this work comes in 7 volumes)
- Seidman, I. (2019). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences (5th ed.). New York City, NY: Teachers College Press.
- Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative research: Analysis types and software tools. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. (not in press; about 25% of this book is available free via Google Books)
- 1 Page Handout (Flow Chart) – Which Qualitative Approach Best Fits Your Research Needs? – Adapted from Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry & research design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- 1 Page Handout (Table) – Chen, H., & Teherani, A. (2016) Common qualitative methodologies and research designs in health professions education. Academic Medicine, 91(12), e5. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001392
- 1 Page Handout (Table) – Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Approaches
- 1 Page Handout (Table) – The Qualitative Traditions – Adapted from Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2018). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (3rd ed.). Thorofare, NJ: Sage Publications.
- 1 Page Handout (Visual) – Whyte Directiveness Scale – Adapted from Merton, R. K. (1987). The focused interview and focus groups: Continuities and discontinuities, Public Opinion Quarterly, 51(4), 550-566. https://doi.org/10.1086/269057
- 32-Item COREQ Scale – Adapted from Tong, A., Sainsbury, P., & Craig, J. (2007). Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): A 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 19(6), 349-357. doi:10.1093/intqhc/mzm042
- Eliot & Associates. (2005). Guidelines for conducting a focus group [PDF file]. Retrieved from https://datainnovationproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/4_How_to_Conduct_a_Focus_Group-2-1.pdf
Slides from 5/23/19 Qualitative Research Methods Workshop
Please click on the following link to view the slides from the Qualitative Research Methods on 05-23-19.
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