Mary Crawford, PhD

Professor Emerita, Psychology (Affiliate)

Research Overview

Dr. Mary Crawford is a professor of psychology and former director of the women’s studies program at the University of Connecticut. Her research ranges widely across gender-related topics, with a particular focus on the social psychology of dyadic interaction. She explores perceptions of assertive speech, speech stereotypes by race and gender, and how expectations about speech style influence both perceptions of talk and actual speech characteristics.

Dr. Crawford’s communication research extends to sexual communication, with the goal of designing health interventions (such as HIV-risk reduction) based on realistic knowledge about how sexual communication takes place and how it is constrained by social roles. In collaboration with InCHIP researcher Dr. Seth Kalichman, Ph.D., she has helped to develop interventions for South African men at risk for perpetrating violence against sexual partners. With Dr. Kerry Marsh, Ph.D., she is using immersive virtual reality technology to examine how individuals negotiate with partners in sexually risky situations.

Dr. Crawford is also an advocate for innovative research methods that acknowledge the social and interactional context of psychological inquiry. Her co-edited volume Innovative Methods for Feminist Psychological Research received the Distinguished Publication Award from the Association for Women in Psychology. During the 2004-2005 academic year, she was a Fulbright Senior Scholar based in Kathmandu, Nepal, where her research focused on the trafficking of young girls and women from Nepal to India for sex work. Dr. Crawford’s goal is to help Nepali organizations improve methods for evaluating the effects of anti-trafficking interventions.


Ph.D., University of Delaware, 1975 (experimental psychology)
M.A., University of Delaware, 1972 (experimental psychology)
B.S., West Chester State College, 1963 (music education)

Featured Publications

Crawford, M. (2017). International Sex Trafficking. Women & Therapy, 40(1-2), 101-122.

Crawford, M. (2010). Sex trafficking in South Asia: Telling Maya’s Story. London: Routledge.

Simbayi, L.C., Cloete, A., Strebel, A., Henda, N., Kalichman , S.C. , Cherry, C., Kalichman, M.O., Crawford, M., Cain, D., Shefer, T. & Tshabalala, M. (2008). HIV/AIDS risk reduction and domestic violence prevention intervention for South African men: Theoretical foundations, development, and test of concept. International Journal of Men’s Health, 7, 254-272.

Crawford, M., & Kaufman, M. (2008). Sex trafficking in Nepal: Survivor characteristics and long term outcomes. Violence Against Women, 14: 905-916.

Shefer, T., Crawford, M., Strebel, A., Simbayi, L.C., Dwadwa- Henda, N., Cloete, A., Kaufman, M.R., & Kalichman, S.C. (2008). Gender, power and resistance to change among two communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Feminism & Psychology, 18, 157-182.

Kaufman, M. R., Shefer, T., Crawford, M., Simbayi, L C., Kalichman, S C. (2008). Gender Attitudes, Sexual Power, HIV Risk: A Model for Understanding HIV Risk Behavior of South African Men. AIDS Care, 20, 434-441.

Crawford, M. & Fox, A. (2007). From sex to gender and back again: Co-optation of a feminist language reform. Feminism & Psychology, 17, 481-486.

Lee, I., & Crawford, M. (2007). Lesbians and bisexual women in the eyes of scientific psychology. Feminism & Psychology, 17, 109-127.

Strebel, A., Crawford, M., Shefer, T., Cloete, A. Henda, N., Kaufman, M., Simbayi, L., Magome, K., & Kalichman, S. (2006). Social constructions of gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS in two communities of the Western Cape, South Africa. Journal of the Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 3, 516-528.

Crawford, M., & Kaufman, M.R. (2006). Sex differences or social processes? In K. Dindia & D. Canary (Eds.), Sex differences and similarities in communication, 2nd ed. (pp. 179-194). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Crawford, M. (2006). Transformations: Women, gender and psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill. First edition.

Konik, J., & Crawford, M. (2004). Exploring normative creativity: Testing the relationship between cognitive flexibility and sexual identity. Sex Roles, 51, 249-253.

Crawford, M. (2004). Mars and Venus collide: A discursive analysis of marital self-help psychology. Feminism & Psychology, 14, 63-80.

Marecek, J., Crawford, M., & Popp, D. (2004). On the construction of gender, sex, and sexualities. In A. H. Eagly, A. Beall, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.) The psychology of gender (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.

Crawford, M., & Popp, D. (2003). Sexual double standards: A review and methodological critique of two decades of research. The Journal of Sex Research, 40, 13-26.

Popp, D., Donovan, R. A., Crawford, M., Peele, M., & Marsh. K. L. (2003). Gender, race, and speech style stereotypes. Sex Roles, 48, 317-325.

Kimmel, E., & Crawford, M. (2002). Methods for studying gender. In J. Worell (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Women and Gender, Vol. 2 (pp. 749-758). New York: Academic Press.

Crawford, M. (2002). Gender and feminist studies in psychology. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 9 (pp. 5938-5942). New York: Elsevier.

Crawford, M. (2001). Gender and language. In R. Unger (Ed.) Handbook of the Psychology of Women and Gender (pp. 245-255). New York: Wiley and Sons.

Kimmel, E., & Crawford, M. (Eds.) (2000). Innovations in Feminist Psychological Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crawford, M. (1995). Talking Difference: On Gender and Language. London: Sage.

Contact Information
Mailing AddressDepartment of Psychology
406 Babbidge Road, Unit 1020
(Bousfield Building, BOUS)
Storrs, CT 06269-1020