Lawrence E. Armstrong, PhD

Professor Emeritus


Research Overview

My research specialties include human fluid-electrolyte balance and assessment of hydration status; physiological responses to exercise; dietary interventions (i.e., sport drinks, low salt diets, glucose-electrolyte solutions); heat tolerance; effects of dehydration on performance; physiological responses to wearing uniforms; pharmacologic influences on thermoregulation and heat acclimatization as they apply to athletes, fire fighters, and military personnel. The one theme that ties all of these specialties together is the human response and adaptation to exercise. I have conducted research at several mass participation endurance events such as; Boston Marathon, Marine Corps Marathon, Falmouth Road Race, and the Ironman Triathlon World Championship. Additionally, I have made it a career goal to make certain that laboratory and field investigations culminated in publication of peer reviewed journal articles; I have published a total of 180 peer reviewed publications as first author or co-author, dating back to 1983. In recent years, I have completed research studies in the HPL that focused on (a) effects of mild dehydration on cognitive performance and mood in men and women, and (b) hydration status of women across the term of pregnancy and during breast-feeding.


B.Ed. University of Toledo l97l cum laude Major: Biology, comprehensive science

M.Ed. University of Toledo l976 4.00 GPA Major: Curriculum (Science)

Ph.D. Ball State University, Human Performance Laboratory 1983. Received Doctoral Fellowship in Human Bioenergetics. Dissertation topic: Effects of Dietary Sodium Intake on Body and Muscle Potassium Content in Unacclimatized Men During Successive Days of Exercise in the Heat.

Recent Publications


Featured Publications

Peer-Reviewed Scientific Publications

1. Armstrong, L.E., Costill, D.L., Fink, W.J., Bassett, D., Hargreaves, J., Nishibata, I., King, D.S. Effects of Dietary Sodium on Body and Muscle Potassium Content During Heat Acclimation. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 54:391-397, 1985.

2. Armstrong, L.E., De Luca, J.P., Hubbard, R.W. Time course of recovery and heat acclimation ability of prior exertional heatstroke patients. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 22:36-48, 1990.

3. Armstrong L.E., Maresh C.M., Castellani J., Bergeron M., Kenefick, R. W., LaGasse, K.E., Riebe, D. Urinary indices of hydration status. Int. J. Sport Nutrition 4:265-279, 1994.

4. Armstrong L.E., Maresh C.M., Gabaree C.V., Hoffman J.R., Kavouras S.A., Kenefick R.W., Castellani J.W., Ahlquist L.E. Thermal and circulatory responses during exercise: effects of hypohydration, dehydration, and water intake. J. Applied Physiol. 82:2028-2035, 1997.

5. Armstrong LE, Maresh CM, Keith NR, Elliott TA, VanHeest JL, Scheett TP, Stoppani J, Judelson DA, DeSouza MJ. Heat acclimation and physical training adaptations of young women using different contraceptive hormones. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism 288: E868-E875, 2005.

6. Armstrong LE, Pumerantz AC, Roti MW, Judelson DA, Watson G, Dias JC, Sökmen B, Casa DJ, Maresh CM. Fluid, electrolyte, and renal indices of hydration during 11 days of controlled caffeine consumption. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism 15:252-265, 2005.

7. Armstrong, L.E. Assessing hydration status: The elusive gold standard. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 26(5):575S-584S, 2007.

8. Armstrong LE, Ganio MS, Casa DJ, Lee EC, McDermott BP, Klau JF, Jimenez L, Le Bellego L, Chevillotte E,. Lieberman HR. Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women. Journal of Nutrition 142(2):382-388, 2012.

9. Armstrong LE, Johnson EC, Munoz CX, Swokla B, Le Bellego L, Jimenez L, Casa DJ, Maresh CM. Hydration biomarkers and dietary fluid consumption of women. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics 112(7):1056-61, 2012.

10. Armstrong LE. The Challenges of Linking Chronic Dehydration and Fluid Consumption to Health Outcomes. Nutrition Reviews 70 (Suppl. 2): S121 -S127, 2012.

11. Perrier E, Rondeau P, Poupin M, Le Bellego L, Armstrong LE, Lang F, Stookey J, Tack I, Vergne S, Klein A. Relation between urinary hydration biomarkers and total fluid intake in healthy adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67(9):939-43, 2013.

12. Armstrong LE, Barquera S, Duhamel J-F, Hardinsyah R, Haslam D, Lafontan M. Recommendations for healthier hydration: addressing the public health issues of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Clinical Obesity, in press, 2014.

Published Books

1. Armstrong L.E. Performing in Extreme Environments. Human Kinetics Publishers, 2000, 334 pages.

Armstrong, L.E. Rendimiento en ambientes extremos. Ediciones Desnivel. Madrid, 2000. 352 páginas. ISBN: 84-95760-27-4 (Spanish version of the above book).

2. Armstrong, L.E., editor and author/coauthor of six chapters. Exertional Heat Illnesses. Human Kinetics Publishers, April 2003, 275 pages. Individual chapters are listed in the section below titled, “Book Chapters”.

3. In progress: Armstrong, L.E. and Kraemer, W.J. (co-editors) of the book, ACSM Research Methods which is an approved publication of the American College of Sports Medicine. Publisher: Lippincott Williams Wilkins, 2014.


Contact Information
Mailing AddressDepartment of Kinesiology
2095 Hillside Road, Unit 1110
Storrs, CT 06269-1110