Researchers generally design effective health-based practices and interventions in order to improve public health. However, only a very small proportion of research innovations are ever put into practice and efforts to implement these practices can take many years (Balas & Boren, 2000). In order to bridge this gap between science and practice, the widespread dissemination and implementation of these innovations is needed.
What is Dissemination and Implementation?
Dissemination is the targeted distribution of information and intervention materials to a specific public health or clinical practice audience. The intent is to spread knowledge and the associated evidence-based interventions.
Implementation is the use of strategies to adopt and integrate evidence-based health interventions and change practice patterns within specific settings.
(Source: NIH, Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health Program Announcement)
Resources for Providers and Planners:
The Community Toolbox (University of Kansas)
Compendium of links to databases of evidence-based practices spanning a wide array of health domains, including HIV/AIDS, cancer, and substance abuse.
The Community Guide (National Center for Health Marketing, Centers for Disease Control)
Compendium of resources to help individuals choose programs and policies to improve health and prevent disease in their community.
Put Prevention Into Practice (PPIP) (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ))
This site provides tools and resources to support health care organizations and engage the entire health care delivery system.
Guidance for Comprehensive Cancer Control Planning (Centers for Disease Control (CDC))
Site provides guidelines and resources to implement evidence-based cancer prevention and treatment practices and interventions.
Resources for Researchers:
Dissemination & Implementation Measurement Compendium (Center for Health, Intervention, and Prevention, University of Connecticut, Storrs)
This white paper provides researchers with a synthesis of validated measurement tools designed to assess D&I-related constructs.
- Related peer-reviewed publication in Implementation Science 2013: “Measuring factors affecting implementation of health innovations: a systematic review of structural, organizational, provider, patient, and innovation level measures“
Center for Health Dissemination and Implementation Research (Kaiser Permanente Institute for Health Research)
Provides general resources including links to glossary of relevant terminology, guidelines for community collaborations, suggested reporting guidelines to facilitate dissemination of findings, and measurement tools.
National Implementation Research Network (FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Provides resources regarding core components of implementation process and relevant literature reviews.
RE-AIM (Virginia Tech College of Agriculture and Life Sciences)
This site provides an explanation of and resources (e.g., planning tools, measures, self-assessment quizzes, FAQs, comprehensive bibliography) for those wanting to apply the RE-AIM framework.
The purpose of this compendium is to provide researchers will a summary of available grant funding mechanisms and training opportunities to increase capacity to conduct dissemination and implementation research.
Compendiums of Evidence-Based Innovations:
- Mental Health: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP)
- HIV/AIDS: Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Diffusion of Evidence Based Interventions (DEBI)
- Cancer Prevention: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Research-Tested Intervention Programs (RTIP)
- Health Care Interventions: Cochrane Reviews
National Institutes of Health: Science of Dissemination & Implementation Conferences
InCHIP Lecture Series
- Brian Mittman (VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System), Frameworks for Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health: A Systematic Approach to Study Planning, Design, Conduct and Reporting (May 1, 2008)
- Jeremy Grimshaw (University of Ottawa), Building the Science of Knowledge Translation (November 19, 2009)
- Abraham Wandersman (University of South Carolina), Promoting Science-based Approaches: Bridging Research and Practice by Integrating Research to Practice Models and Community-centered Models (April 22, 2010)
- Daren Anderson (The Community Health Center, Inc.) An Integrative Model of Care (October 27, 2011)
- Lynne Garner (The Donaghue Foundation) What is Next in Health Research Funding? (November 10, 2011)
- Bruce Rapkin (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University) Designing for Collaboration: Putting Evidence-Based Prevention Strategies into Practice in Diverse Communities (December 1, 2011)
CICATS Community Engagement Lecture Series (Co-sponsored by InCHIP)
- Sarena Seifer (Community-Campus Partnerships for Health) Advancing Health Equity through Community-University Research Partnerships (October 28, 2010)
- Joseph Trimble (Western Washington University) Ethics and the responsible Conduct of Research with Ethnocultural Populations (November 11, 2010)
- Douglas Brugge (Tufts University School of Medicine) Building University Commitment for Community Engaged Research (February 10, 2011)
- Brian Smedley (Health Policy Institute, Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies) Building Stronger Communities for Better Health: Moving from Science to Policy and Practice (December 8, 2011)
- Jack Dovidio (Yale University) Racism among the Well- Intentioned: Unconscious Bias and Medical Care (March 27, 2011)
Dissemination, Implementation, and Translation Research in Health Listserv
The purpose of this listserv is to distribute information on late-breaking research, practice, and policy activities in the area of dissemination and implementation in health care and public health, including publications, reports, conferences, meetings, program announcements, funding opportunities, and other various proceedings. To subscribe to the listserv, send an email to email@example.com with the body of the message stating: Subscribe D-I-Health your name. Monthly postings are also available on the Dissemination and Implementation in Health Listserv website.
For Further Reading:
Carpenter, D., Nieva, V., Albaghal, T., & Sorra, J. (2005). Development of a planning tool to guide dissemination of research results. Advances in patient safety: From research to implementation. Vol. 4, Programs, tools, and products. AHRQ pub. 05-0021-4. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Dearing, J. W. & Kreuter, M. W. (2010). Designing for diffusion: How can we increase uptake of cancer communication innovations? Patient Education and Counseling, 81(Supplement), 100-110.
Dougherty, D., & Conway, P. H. (2008). The “3Ts” road map to transform US health care: The “how” of high-quality care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299, 2319-2321. doi:10.1001/jama.299.19.2319
Glasgow, R. E., Vogt, T. M., & Boles, S. M. (1999). Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: The RE-AIM framework. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1323-1327. doi:10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1322
Proctor, E., Silmere, H., Raghavan, R., Hovmand, P., Aarons, G., Bunger, A., Griffey, R., & Hensley, M. (2011). Outcomes for implementation research: Conceptual distinctions, measurement challenges, and research agenda. Admin Policy Mental Health, 38, 65-76.
Rabin, B. A., Brownson, R. C., Haire-Joshu, D., Kreuter, M. W., & Weaver, N. D. (2008). A glossary for dissemination and implementation research in health. Journal of Public Health Management Practice, 14, 117–123.
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.
Spoth, R. (2008). Translating family-focused prevention science into effective practice: Toward a translational impact paradigm. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 415-421. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00617.x
Westfall, J. M., Mold, J., & Fagnan, L. (2007). Practice-based research—“Blue highways” on the NIH roadmap. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297, 403-406. doi:10.1001/jama.297.4.403
Woolf, S. H. (2008). The meaning of translational research and why it matters. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299, 211-213. doi:10.1001/jama.2007.26
For more information, see the suggested reading list from the Implementation Research Institute (IRI) at Washington University in St. Louis.